Present Perfect Forms – Lesson 1

Learn the present perfect…Perfectly!
This is Lesson 1: The Forms
Lesson 2: Present Perfect or Past Simple?…

Lesson 3: Present Perfect with Times –…

Lesson 4: Present Perfect with Lengths of Time –…
Lesson 5: Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous?
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How to Talk about Appearance ?

Here they are:

What is the first thing you notice about a person?

What do the clothes someone wears say about that person?

Is there a part of your appearance that you are very proud of? (i.e. eyes, fashion sense, hair etc.)

What is the most interesting haircut you have seen?

Have you every gone through the entire day without noticing something was wrong with your appearance? (i.e. missing button, food in your teeth)

What kinds of things do you do to improve/maintain your appearance?

Are there any fashion trends in the past you followed but think are silly looking now?

How long does it take you to get ready in the morning?

Have you ever been intimidated by someone’s appearance?

Do people in your country talk a lot about other people’s appearance?

Is it rude to tell the person that they need to improve their appearance?

Inglês americano x inglês australiano

Conhecer as principais diferenças entre o inglês americano e o inglês britânico costuma ser uma das maiores preocupações dos alunos de inglês. Suponho que você tenha dedicado boa parte de seu tempo, principalmente no início dos estudos, tentando equacionar esse problema. Acertei? Você não é diferente da grande maioria dos alunos. Tranquilize-se!

Depois dessa constatação inicial, a reação costuma ser a de revolta. Já não chega ter de estudar uma língua nova, agora vou ter de aprender duas? Por que preciso decorar duas palavras para dizer “caminhão”, “metrô” e “gasolina”? Você já deve saber que “caminhão” pode ser truck (AmE) e lorry (BrE), “metrô” pode ser subway(AmE) e underground (BrE) e “gasolina” pode ser tanto gas (AmE) quanto petrol(BrE).

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A suffix is a group of letters placed at the end of a word to make a new word. A suffix can make a new word in one of two ways:

  1. inflectional (grammatical): for example, changing singular to plural (dog → dogs), or changing present tense to past tense (walk → walked). In this case, the basic meaning of the word does not change.
  2. derivational (the new word has a new meaning, “derived” from the original word): for example, teach → teacher or care → careful

Inflectional suffixes

Inflectional suffixes do not change the meaning of the original word. So in “Every day I walk to school” and “Yesterday I walked to school”, the words walk and walked have the same basic meaning. In “I have one car” and “I have two cars”, the basic meaning of the words car and cars is exactly the same. In these cases, the suffix is added simply for grammatical “correctness”. Look at these examples:

suffix grammatical change original word suffixed word
-s plural dog dogs
-en plural (irregular) ox oxen
-s 3rd person singular present like he likes
-ed past tense
past participle
work he worked
he has worked
-en past participle (irregular) eat he has eaten
-ing continuous/progressive sleep he is sleeping
-er comparative big bigger
-est superlative big the biggest

Derivational suffixes

With derivational suffixes, the new word has a new meaning, and is usually a different part of speech. But the new meaning is related to the old meaning – it is “derived” from the old meaning.

We can add more than one suffix, as in this example:

derive (verb) + ationderivation (noun) + alderivational (adjective)

There are several hundred derivational suffixes. Here are some of the more common ones:

suffix making example
original word
suffixed word
-ation nouns explore
-sion persuade
-er teach teacher
-cian music musician
-ess god goddess
-ness sad sadness
-al arrive arrival
-ary diction dictionary
-ment treat treatment
-y jealous
-al adjectives accident accidental
-ary imagine imaginary
-able tax taxable
-ly brother brotherly

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A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. This is a list of the most common prefixes in English, together with their basic meaning and some examples. You can find more detail or precision for each prefix in any good dictionary.

The origins of words are extremely complicated. You should use this list as a guide only, to help you understand possible meanings. But be very careful, because often what appears to be a prefix is not a prefix at all. Note also that this list does not include elements like “auto-” or ” bio-“, because these are “combining forms”, not prefixes.

prefix meaning examples
a- also an- not, without atheist, anaemic
a- to, towards aside, aback
in the process of, in a particular state a-hunting, aglow
a- of anew
completely abashed
ab- also abs- away, from abdicate, abstract
ad- also a-, ac-, af-, ag- al-, an-, ap-, at- as-, at- movement to, change into, addition or increase advance, adulterate, adjunct, ascend, affiliate, affirm, aggravate, alleviate, annotate, apprehend, arrive, assemble, attend

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Conditional sentences

Conditional sentences are sometimes confusing for learners of English as a second language.

Watch out:

  1. Which type of conditional sentences is it?
  2. Where is the if-clause (e.g. at the beginning or at the end of the conditional sentence)?

There are three types of conditional sentences.

type condition
I condition possible to fulfill
II condition in theory possible to fulfill
III condition not possible to fulfill (too late)

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