Conditional Sentences / If-Clauses Type I, II und III

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.

Conditional Sentence Type 1

→ It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.

Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

more on Conditional Sentences Type I

Conditional Sentence Type 2

→ It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.

Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

more on Conditional Sentences Type II

read more…


Law English – Passing the Bar

When lawyers talk about the “bar” they may not be talking about the place where you meet your friends for a drink. Rather, the Bar Examination is the licensing test to become a lawyer in the U.S. and the Bar Association is the oganization that regulates the legal profession. Both the test and the organization are often referred to as “the Bar”. So when someone says that they are a “member of the California Bar” they mean that they are a licensed lawyer in the State of California, not a participant in a drinking club in San Francisco.

Additionally, membership in the California bar gives you the right to practice law only in California. Each State of the United States has its own licensing examination because the laws of each State are often quite different. There is no nation-wide licensing for lawyers in the US, except in the very special area of Patent Law. Unlike lawyers in Germany or France, American lawyers who move to another part of the US normally have to take another Bar Examination in their new home State. Some States and Washington, D.C., do not require a new examination if you are licensed in another State and meet certain requirements.

The difficulty of each State’s bar examination also varies from State to State. California is known to have the most difficult bar examination in the country. In the state of Wisconsin you do not have to take the bar exam if you graduated from certain Wisconsin Law Schools.

Louisiana is also known to have a very long and difficult Bar examination. As you may know, Louisiana is the only State in the US that has a legal system patterned after the French system instead of the British Common law system. When we talk about the system of law in France and Louisiana we call it a Civil Law System, as distinguished from a Common Law System.

US Lawyers are also commonly called attorneys or attorneys at law. There is no difference in the US between lawyers who do (barristers) or who do not (solicitors) practice in court like there is in Great Britain and other comon law countries. When you pass the Bar in a US State you are licensed to practice in all areas of law (except Patent Law, which requires a special licensing exam.)

Next week we will talk about different areas of law.

Useful Vocabulary :
Take the Bar
Pass the Bar
Fail the Bar
Be a member of the Bar
Bar Examination
Bar Association

Interesting Celebrity Fact :
John F. Kennedy, Jr. failed the New York Bar exam 2 times before finally passing on his third try.


Preposições em inglês: in, on, at

A gramática em inglês pode ser complicada. E uma área que os alunos acham particularmente difícil são as preposições em inglês. Uma preposição liga substantivos, pronomes e expressões a outras palavras na frase. Desculpem, eu sei que é chatinho de entender e queria que desse para viver sem isso, mas não dá. Então, vou tentar facilitar ajudando, para que vocês se sintam mais à vontade com preposições. Vamos fazer uma rápida revisão de quando usar as três preposições em inglês mais comuns: in, on e at.

read more…

Quando eu for (alguma coisa): como dizer isso em inglês?

Michael Jacobs Quando eu for A dúvida Se me permite, vou abusar de sua paciência e de sua sapiência. Em 2007, assisti a um dos debates entre os candidatos democratas que buscavam a indicação do partido para concorrem à presidência dos Estados Unidos em 2008. Ao responderem à pergunta “O que farão na presidência?”, três deles disseram: When I am President…, ou seja, empregaram o presente do verbo to be com conotação de futuro. Esta colocação, acredito que correta coloquialmente, pode ser utilizada quando? A resposta do Prof. Michael Jacobs When I am president é equivalente a “Quando eu for presidente”, para não deixar margem de …

read more…

Simple Future

O futuro simples é identificado pelo uso do auxiliar “will”. Nas frases afirmativas, esse auxiliar deve vir sempre após o sujeito. Ex.:

She will graduate next year. (Ela se formará no ano que vem).
Bob and Carol will travel to Japan next month. (Bob e Carol viajarão para o Japão no próximo mês).
I will send you some Christmas cards. (Eu lhe enviarei alguns cartões de natal).
It will rain a lot next week. (Choverá muito na semana que vem).

Nas frases interrogativas, basta inverter o auxiliar, colocando-o no início da frase.

read more…

Don’t make these mistakes in English!

Can you find the mistakes? “I am student”, “I am agree”, “Yesterday, I’m go downtown”, “He no have money”, “I want to meet the downtown”. If you don’t know, this is the lesson for you! These are mistakes made by students of all levels, so watch this video and learn to avoid these common errors.

Podcast – this is the way to listening better!!!

You spend more time in school listening than doing any other activity. It is important that you understand most of what you hear, so that you can learn about your different subjects and at the same time improve your English. In order for you to become a better listener, look first at the following list. It contains many of the things that can make it hard for you to understand what you hear:

  • the speaker talks too quickly
  • the speaker talks too softly
  • two or more people are speaking at the same time
  • there is background noise
  • there are other distractions
  • the speaker or the topic is boring
  • you are not concentrating on what the speaker is saying
  • there are no pictures or charts to look at while listening
  • you have no idea about the topic
  • the speaker uses many new or difficult words
  • the speaker’s sentences are long and complex

read more…