Como usar os phrasal verbs


Os phrasal verbs são verbos em inglês que, em função do acréscimo de uma preposição, têm seus sentidos alterados dentro de determinados contextos. São verbos preposicionados onde temos uma relação de concordância entre um verbo e uma preposição ou um verbo e um advérbio.

 

Agora que já explicamos o que são os phrasal verbs, vejamos um exemplo de como aplica-lo em diferentes situações.

Exemplo de Phrasal Verbs: “To call”

O verbo “to call”, dependendo da preposição ou advérbio que o acompanha, pode ter o sentido de exigir, convidar, cancelar, gritar e telefonar. Como? Veja os exemplos abaixo.

  • Quando a palavra “call” vem acompanhada de “for” (call for), ela é traduzida por “exigir”, ou ainda, “requerer”.

This situation calls for your help. (Esta situação exige sua ajuda)

  • Já quando acompanhada do “in”, é melhor traduzida por “convidar”,  “chamar”, “permitir entrada”, etc.

Call in the man on the waiting room to my office, please. (Chame o homem que está na sala de espera ao meu escritório, por favor)

  • Se substituirmos “in” por “of”, o sentido é alterado para “cancelar”.

Call off our dinner with Max and Caroline. (Cancele nosso jantar com Max e Caroline)

  • Já “call out” tem o sentido de “chamar”,  mas no sentido de “gritar para”. Cuidado para não confundir com “call in”!

Call out for that girl down the street! (Chame aquela garota no final da rua!)

  • E, por fim, “call up” pode ser traduzido para “telefonar”, “ligue”.

Call up Maria on her cellphone, please. (Ligue para o celular da Maria, por favor)

Existem muitos exemplos de phrasal verbs, e muitos exemplos de variações desses verbos. Portanto, não existe uma regra universal para cada um dos phrasal verbs e a melhor forma de aprender é colocando em prática.

Feeling good about your country


What are the things or the people that make you feel good about where you come from?

We call this feeling pride. Watching sportsmen and women represent your country can give you a great feeling of national pride.

Rob and Finn discuss national pride in 6 Minute English.

This week’s question:

What was the nationality of the first astronauts to live in the International Space Station in the year 2000?

a) Russian

b) Ukrainian

c) American

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

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Rock and roll grandads


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In 2005 The Rolling Stones released an album called “A Bigger Bang”.  Many critics, as usual, chose it as their favourite of the year.  This isn’t very surprising, but if you think that “A Bigger Bang” was their 25th album now the Rolling Stones have been around for more than 40 years, and that singer Mick Jagger, guitarist Keith Richards and the other musicians are all well into their 60s, and are all grandfathers, it starts to look a bit strange. The idea of my grandfather standing on a stage in front of thousands of people singing “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction” is just embarrassing. Can you imagine your grandfather doing it?

But the Rolling Stones are not an exception.  Last year, ex-Beatle Paul McCartney also released a new record.  He worked with the producer of the band Radiohead to give himself a more modern sound.  His record only had limited success, but again thousands of people came out to see the man when he played live concerts.   Many young people still listen to Madonna, as well.  She is regarded as being an exciting contemporary artist, even though she has now been making records for more than 20 years and is in her late 40s.  Even a former terror like John Lydon (who used to be called “Johnny Rotten” when he was the leader of infamous punk band the Sex Pistols) still makes records.  He now appears regularly on TV chat shows in Britain, and was even a contestant on the reality show “I’m a Celebrity Get Me Out Of Here!”

It used to be said that pop music was an art form created by and for young people.  Many groups or singers make one or two good records when they are in their early 20s, then disappear, or carry on making less interesting records.  It was difficult to find artists who could continue making great records, year after year, for a long time.  In some ways, this is still the case.  The Rolling Stones, for example, are still much more famous for the songs they made in the 1960s and 70s than for their more recent recordings, and even though many people go and see Paul McCartney in concert, they are really hoping he will sing some old Beatles songs, rather than his new ones.   People like to watch John Lydon on TV because they hope he will do something outrageous, like he used to do.  Many of these rock’n’roll grandads are really still living off the past.

This phenomenon is not limited to the West.  In other parts of the world where there is more respect for older people and less of an emphasis on youth, perhaps it is to be expected.  Last year, veteran Indian singer Asha Bhosle, now in her 70s, released a new record.  She is a musician who has continued to develop, changing her style and working with other interesting western musicians such as Michael Stipe from the American rock band REM and classical musicians, the Kronos Quartet.  However, it seems that at her concerts people still hope that she will sing the old Bollywood film songs such as “Dum Maaro Dum” that originally made her famous.

Pop only used to be for young people, now it has grown up.  Now pop and rock music have been around for 50 years, people who started listening to it when they were young are now old.  Why should their tastes change?

Of course, boy bands – groups of singing and dancing young people who are often not much older than the people who buy or download their songs – still continue to be hugely popular all over the world.  However, it is very difficult to imagine a group like Blue still going in forty years time.  And while older readers might remember the Backstreet Boys, or even Take That – how significant has their contribution to popular music really been?  And can anyone already even remember McFly?  Will anybody still be listening to Blue or Britney Spears when they’re in their sixties?

Micos em inglês: Dá um pedaço?


Sou brasileiro e estava reunido com um grupo de amigos, todos americanos. Um deles apareceu com uma pizza e, por educação, a ofereceu aos demais. Agradeci a gentileza, mas não aceitei. Mas como me deu vontade de comer um pouco depois, perguntei:

slice of pizza– Can I have a piss?

Todos começaram a rir e o dono da pizza respondeu:

– Yeah, sure buddy, the restroom is over there.[Claro, na boa, o banheiro fica logo ali.]

Depois me explicaram a diferença de pronúncia entre piece e piss e todos demos muita risada com as confusões que essa sutileza de pronúncia pode causar.

Cf. Qual é a tradução de “PISS”?
CfVocabulário: Acabar em pizza
CfVocabulário: Banheiro

MORAL DA HISTÓRIA: A diferença de pronúncia entre “PIECE” e “PISS” é mesmo sutil para o ouvido do brasileiro. Ela foi explicada no post “Pronúncia do ‘i’“. Embora não seja errado falarmos “PIECE OF PIZZA” (pedaço de pizza), a forma geralmente usada é “SLICE OF PIZZA” (fatia de pizza). O que, em parte, explica a reação dos americanos. A pergunta poderia ser assim: “CAN I HAVE A SLICE?”. Dessa forma, a confusão teria sido evitada. A frase “CAN I HAVE A PISS?” significa “Posso dar uma mijada?”.

Se você gostou dessa história e quer ler outras semelhantes, conheça o livro “Aprenda inglês com humor – Micos que você não pode pagar“, de Ulisses Wehby de Carvalho, lançado pela Disal Editora em 2012.

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How can I say estar de ressaca in English?


[TO HAVE A HANGOVER]

  • No wonder Barry has such a bad hangover. He drank a whole bottle of whisky last night!
  • Não é de admirar que Barry esteja com uma ressaca forte. Ele bebeu uma garrafa inteira de uísque ontem à noite!

CfGírias: BOOZE
CfComo se diz “balada” em inglês?
CfExpressões Idiomáticas: Motorista da Rodada
CfFalsos Cognatos: PROHIBITION
CfFalsos Cognatos: ADDICTION

Referência: “How do you say … in English? – Expressões coloquiais e perguntas inusitadas para quem estuda ou ensina inglês” – José Roberto A. Igreja, Disal Editora, 2005. Clique para ler a sinopse.

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Welcome to London – Choosing transport from Heathrow into town


After they collect their luggage, John and Fiona think about the best way to get into the centre of London. They know a taxi will be too expensive, but they can’t agree on the best form of transport.

Listen Here

Language tips – vocabulary

the Tube – the popular name for the underground train system (Metro System)
the Underground – another name for the Tube
a coach – comfortable bus usually used on longer journeys
get stuck in a traffic jam – you can’t go anywhere because there are too many cars
convenient – easy to use
rush hour – the busy time in the morning and afternoon when everyone travels to and from work

Language tips – grammar

Comparative adjectives

More convenient and quicker.
Long adjectives like convenient use more to make them comparative, but short adjectives like quick use er to make them comparative.

How noisy is ‘too noisy’?


How much noise can you stand?

If you’re at the cinema or the theatre, noises from outside can stop you from enjoying the performance.

A British actress, dressed as Queen Elizabeth II, shouted at some noisy drummers who were interrupting her play.

In this programme Jennifer and Rob discuss noise tolerance and people’s reaction to actress Dame Helen Mirren’s angry outburst.

This week’s question:

According to an EU publication, what percentage of people in Europe are exposed to road traffic noise levels which are higher than 55 dB?

a) 40%

b) 50%

c) 60%

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Audio

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